動名詞 (Gerunds)

動名詞是一種動狀詞,它是由動詞原式加 -ing (如同現在分詞般)演變而來,扮演著名詞的角色。動名詞既然可以當名詞使用,也就可以拿來當作句子的主詞受詞、或補語

動名詞的功能
作為範例
主詞Smoking damages your lungs.
抽煙腐蝕你的肺。
受詞You should quit smoking.
你應該戒菸。
補語His favorite hobby is smoking.
他最喜歡的嗜好是抽煙。

Cleaning the house is a chore.

清理房子是件苦差事。

動名詞"Cleaning"是由動詞"Clean"加-ing演變而來,扮演著名詞的角色。它還是具有動詞的特性,可以有受詞"the house"。動名詞片語“Cleaning the house”(清理房子) 是整個句子的主詞。

Eating too much is bad for one's health.

吃太多對一個人的健康不好。

動名詞"Eating"是由動詞"Eat"加-ing演變而來,扮演著名詞的角色。它還是具有動詞的特性,可以被副詞"too much"所修飾。動名詞片語"Eating too much"(吃太多)是整個句子的主詞。

How can I be assertive without being rude?

我要如何能有主見而不顯得粗魯?

動名詞"being"是由動詞"be"加-ing演變而來,扮演著名詞的角色。形容詞"rude" 粗魯的,作為補語。動名詞片語"being rude"作為介系詞"without"的受詞。

底下 cooking, cleaning, washing, ironing, shopping 等都是動名詞,扮演著「名詞」的角色,當作動詞 do 的受詞

Who’s going to do thecooking (烹調)
cleaning (打掃)
washing (洗滌)
ironing (熨衣服)
shopping (採購)
?

動名詞與現在分詞拼法相同,都是動詞原式加 -ing,那又如何區分呢?動名詞扮演「名詞」的角色,而現在分詞則是當「形容詞」使用,兩者詞類不同。

The smoking population in China has surpassed the 300 million mark.

中國的抽煙人口已超過 3億大關。

smoking 是現在分詞,當形容詞使用,修飾 population。

Smoking causes half a million deaths each year in the U.S.

吸煙導致美國每年50萬人的死亡。

Somking 是動名詞,當名詞使用,作為句子的主詞。

Among her hobbies are traveling, scuba diving, skiing, bike riding and hiking.

她的愛好中有旅遊、潛水、滑雪、騎自行車和徒步旅行。

traveling, scuba diving, skiing, bike riding, hiking 均為動名詞。

請將正確答案拖放到適當的空格內,再按Solve鈕看結果。

介系詞之後的動名詞

  1. Mike is good at   basketball.
  2. Her son complains about  .
  3. They are afraid of   the match.
  4. We are looking forward to   out tonight.
  5. Bob apologized for   late.
being bullying going losing playing

動名詞前面時常可以看到所有格的人稱代名詞(my, your, his, her, their...)

I'm sad about your going to the movie without me.

你去看電影而不讓我陪同,令我很傷心。

John has been scolded by his boss for over ten minutes now. Apparently, she is not happy about his being late again.

約翰已經被老闆罵了十多分鐘了。 顯然,對於他又遲到,她很不高興。

being 是動名詞。請參考99年學科能力測驗第11題

  • 媽媽不喜歡我吃太多的垃圾食品。
  • Mom doesn't like me eating too much junk food.
  • Mom doesn't like my eating too much junk food.

動名詞 eating 前面用 my。

  • 賈斯汀的女友喜歡他洗澡時唱歌。
  • Justin's girlfriend likes him singing in the shower.
  • Justin's girlfriend likes his singing in the shower.

動名詞 singing 前面用 his,不是 him。

動名詞的否定形式,not 必須放在動名詞前面

He has no regrets about not going to the party.

他不後悔沒有去參加聚會。

Not exercising can worsen your arthritis.

不運動會惡化你的關節炎。

  • 約翰不能去日本感到不開心。
  • John is upset about going not to Japan.
  • John is upset about not going to Japan.

not 必須放在動名詞前面。

『to + 動詞原式』?還是『to + 動名詞』?

某些特殊的動詞、形容詞或名詞習慣性後面跟著介系詞 to 形成一種慣用語,這時候 to 後面就不能用動詞原式,必須使用動名詞。

  • 我想沒有人會反對提早離開。
  • I don’t think anyone will object to leave early.
  • I don’t think anyone will object to leaving early.

動詞 object 與介系詞 to 形成片語動詞,to 後面要用動名詞。

  • 這國會議員反對增稅。
  • The congressman was opposed to increase taxes.
  • The congressman was opposed to increasing taxes.

形容詞 opposed - "反對"; be opposed to + 動名詞

  • 她的問題是她的沉迷於賭博。
  • Her problem is her addiction to gamble.
  • Her problem is her addiction to gambling.

名詞 addiction - "沉迷"; addiction to + 動名詞

某些動詞(例如 avoid, enjoy, keep, ...)後面習慣跟動名詞。

  • 人們喜歡美食和閒聊。
  • People enjoy to have food and talk.
  • People enjoy having food and talk.

動詞"enjoy"習慣後面跟動名詞。

  • 她的父母建議再等幾年她才結婚。
  • Her parents suggested to wait a few years before she gets married.
  • Her parents suggested waiting a few years before she gets married.

動詞 suggested 不能緊跟著不定詞,但是可以用動名詞。

Grammar



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