我們以句子的主詞 The dog (狗)，動詞 leaped (跳)，和受詞 the car (車子)為例，來說明如何引用適當的介系詞來表示受詞「車子」與動詞「跳」的各種不同「方向」的關係： 跳(到、離、進、出、向)車子。
|The dog||leaped||onto |
上面例句若把動詞 leaped 改為 slept (睡），使用適當的介系詞可以表示受詞「車子」與動詞「睡」的各種不同「位置」的關係： 睡在車(前、後、旁、...)。
|The dog||slept|| in front of |
on top of
|the car.||睡在車前 |
by the car = beside the car;
under the car = underneath the car;
on the car = on top of the car。
behind, in front of, beside
Don't walk behind me; I may not lead. Don't walk in front of me; I may not follow. Just walk beside me and be my friend.
除了上面表示方向、位置的關係外，還有表示時間(如：at night, on Sunday, in June, during the day, since 1984, after lunch, by tomorrow noon, till midnight, from 9 to 5, for three years)、地方 (如：at the airport, in Taiwan)、比較（如：looks like his father, as a young lady) 、交通工具（如：by bus, by train, on foot)、目的、代理、手段、...等各種不同關係。
Success is stumbling failure failure no loss enthusiasm.
介系詞 "across - 橫越;穿過" 與 "around - 環繞;四處"
- They're building a new bridge the river.
- The moon goes the earth.
- We walked the street.
- Teachers in Lutheran schools the country and the world are some of the finest you'll find anywhere.
介系詞 between 和 among 都具有“在...之間”的意思. 兩者之間用 between， 三者或三者以上用 among。
The boy stood between his mother and his father.
Richard has always been popular among his classmates.
介系詞 amid (同 amidst)
Charity is off the charts amid the coronavirus.
介系詞 plus 加(上) 和 minus 減(去)
The rent will be NT$12,000, plus gas and electricity.
What is 10 minus 7?
made of 和 made from
"made of" 和 "made from" 都有“由什麼材料做的”的意思。制成品的原材料不因制作的過程而改變，用介系詞 of，若制成品的原材料因制作的過程而改變，用介系詞 from； 椅子還是可以看到木頭，而紙已經看不見木頭。
Chairs are made of wood.
Paper is made from wood.
- The desk is made stainless steel.
- Wine is made grapes.
- That table is made glass.
- Glass is made liquid sand.
|一個單字||in, out, above, below, to, from, at, by, with, under, before, after|
|兩個單字||across from, due to, up to, apart from, according to, thanks to, instead of, as for, out of, ahead of, except for, because of|
|三個單字||in addition to, in front of, with regard to, in case of, by means of, in spite of, on behalf of|
My house sits across from the cemetery.
In spite of not having an umbrella, I walked home in the rain.
- John should interact more often with his friends and family after work, in spite of staying in his room to play computer games.
- John should interact more often with his friends and family after work, instead of staying in his room to play computer games.
She arrived school time spite the snowstorm.
The girl with curly red hair is walking on the street.
The results of the study are at odds with our previous findings.
Police said they caught one but that the other remained at large.
About 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer over the course of her lifetime.
The concert starts at 2:30 p.m. on Saturday.
介系詞 in, on, of, at 看似簡單，卻是最容易被不適當地使用。以下是一些國中基測試題有關介系詞的不正確用法：
- Doing exercise after work is a good way for me to forget the troubles in the office.
- Doing exercise after work is a good way for me to forget the troubles at the office.
- During your two-week stay, we are going to take you to England for one week. I've never been there, either. But I'm sure we're going to have fun in this trip.
- During your two-week stay, we are going to take you to England for one week. I've never been there, either. But I'm sure we're going to have fun on this trip.
- All the best wishes for your sweet sixteenth birthday. Have fun in the party!
- All the best wishes for your sweet sixteenth birthday. Have fun at the party!
- Our dog always hides food under the ground. She digs it out when she needs it.
- Our dog always hides food in the ground. She digs it out when she needs it.
- Susan visits Jenny for the weekend. She arrives at the train station of Jenny’s town in the afternoon. Susan is calling Jenny now.
- Susan visits Jenny for the weekend. She arrives at the train station in Jenny’s town in the afternoon. Susan is calling Jenny now.
- James bought three books in Favorite Books and three of Brown’s books in Silver House during the special sales. How much did he pay?
- James bought three books at Favorite Books and three of Brown’s books at Silver House during the special sales. How much did he pay?
- It was important for Kevin to finish his homework quickly because he had to help his parents sell fruit in the night market.
- It was important for Kevin to finish his homework quickly because he had to help his parents sell fruit at the night market.
Are you afraid of dark?
Jane is married to an Japanese.
某些名詞後面習慣用特定的介系詞(名詞+介系詞)， 例如： approval of, belief in, response to, etc. 讀者應勤查字典，使用正確的介系詞。
Her response to the criticism was very strong.
I have to look after my sick grandpa.
- My birthday is May.
- I can't come to the meeting. Don't wait me.
- I don't like walking alone in the streets night.
- I'm tired waiting for you.
- The library is just the street.
- The police car chased the robbers the streets.
- I have been waiting for you seven o'clock.
- They dream moving to Brazil.
- John is work.
- I will have finished this essay Friday.
- Do you believe on miracles?
- Do you believe in miracles?
- She prides herself about her loyalty to her friends.
- She prides herself on her loyalty to her friends.
- He hasn't smoked ages.
- Sarah is good running.
- The money was divided equally the three winners of the lottery.
- She is sitting a chair.
- This song was written John Denver.
- The secret stayed you and me.
- You can look the word in a dictionary.
- I don't like walking alone the streets at night.
- Several people still contact me my old email address.
- It is a shock and a heartbreak to see how my daughter speaks about me, all of my efforts to help her.
Tom picked up a rock with which to hit the robber.
Tom picked up a rock to hit the robber with.
What did you step on?
The dress had not even been paid for.
- I look for someone who is nice and fun to be .
- What are you interested ?
- I wonder what they're talking .
- What did you put the lamp there ?
- Peter wants to know where Mary came .