介系詞 (Prepositions)

介系詞是用來表示它後面的「受詞」與句子中其他字之間的關係。這種關係通常跟位置、方向、移動、或時間有關。

我們以句子的主詞 The dog (狗),動詞 leaped (跳),和受詞 the car (車子)為例,來說明如何引用適當的介系詞來表示受詞「車子」與動詞「跳」的各種不同「方向」的關係: 跳(到、離、進、出、向)車子。

主詞動詞介系詞受詞關係
The dogleapedonto
off
into
out of
toward
the car.跳到車上
跳離車子
跳進車內
跳出車外
跳向車子

上面例句若把動詞 leaped 改為 slept (睡),使用適當的介系詞可以表示受詞「車子」與動詞「睡」的各種不同「位置」的關係: 睡在車(前、後、旁、...)。

主詞動詞介系詞受詞關係
The dogslept in front of
behind
by
beside
outside of
under
underneath
in
on
on top of
near
far from
the car.睡在車前
在車後
在車旁
在車邊
在車外
在車下
在車底
在車內
在車上
在車頂
靠近車子
遠離車子

註:
by the car = beside the car;
under the car = underneath the car;
on the car = on top of the car。


從上面這兩組例句,讀者不難發現,同樣句子使用不同的「介系詞」可以表達各種不同的意義。

behind, in front of, beside

Don't walk behind me; I may not lead. Don't walk in front of me; I may not follow. Just walk beside me and be my friend.

不要走在我後面;我不見得會引導。不要走在我前面;我可能不會跟隨。只要走在我身邊,成為我的朋友。

利用不同介系詞說明 me 與 walk 之間的關係: walk behind me, walk in front of me, walk beside me。 名言出自1957年諾貝爾文學獎得主卡繆(Albert Camus)。卡謬創作力豐富,是法國哲學家、小說家,同時也是戲劇家、評論家,被尊崇為存在主義的大師。

除了上面表示方向、位置的關係外,還有表示時間(如:at night, on Sunday, in June, during the day, since 1984, after lunch, by tomorrow noon, till midnight, from 9 to 5, for three years)、地方 (如:at the airport, in Taiwan)、比較(如:looks like his father, as a young lady) 、交通工具(如:by bus, by train, on foot)、目的、代理、手段、...等各種不同關係。

made of 和 made from

"made of" 和 "made from" 都有“由什麼材料做的”的意思。制成品的原材料不因制作的過程而改變,用介系詞 of,若制成品的原材料因制作的過程而改變,用介系詞 from; 椅子還是可以看到木頭,而紙已經看不見木頭。

Chairs are made of wood.

椅子是用木頭做的。

Paper is made from wood.

紙是用木頭做的。

請將正確答案拖放到適當的空格內,再按Solve鈕看結果。

  1. The desk is made   stainless steel.
    這辦公桌是由不銹鋼製成。
  2. Wine is made   grapes.
    葡萄酒是由葡萄製成的。
  3. That table is made   glass.
    那張桌子是用玻璃做的。
  4. Glass is made   liquid sand.
    玻璃是從液態砂製成。
from from of of

常見介系詞總覽

常見介系詞一覽表
about大約;關於above在…之上
across橫越;穿過after在…之後
against反對along沿著
amid在…當中;為…環繞among在...之中
around差不多;環繞as以…的身份;作為
atbefore在…之前
behind在…後面beneath在…下方
below在…之下beside在...旁側
besides除...之外between在…和…之間
beyond遠於;在...那一邊by經由
despite不管;儘管down向下
during在…期間except除…之外
for為…做的;給from
in在…之內inside在…裡面
into進入like像;如
minus減(去)near接近
of…的,屬於off離去
on在…上面out通過...而出
outside在外over在…之上
past走過plus
since由於;自從...之後than比; 超過
through經過throughout在各處;自始至終
till直到to到;向
toward向;對under在…下面
until直到up向...上
upon在...之上with跟...在一起;有
within在…裡; 不超過without沒有

請將正確答案拖放到適當的空格內,再按Solve鈕看結果。

請填入適當的介系詞
成功是從失敗中一再跌倒,而不喪失熱情。

Success is stumbling   failure   failure   no loss   enthusiasm.

from of to with

請將正確答案拖放到適當的空格內,再按Solve鈕看結果。

介系詞 "across - 橫越;穿過" 與 "around - 環繞;四處"

  1. They're ​building a new ​bridge   the ​river.
  2. The ​moon goes   the ​earth.
  3. We walked   the street.
  4. Teachers in Lutheran schools   the country and   the world are some of the finest you'll find anywhere.
across across across around around

介系詞 between 和 among 都具有“在...之間”的意思. 兩者之間用 between, 三者或三者以上用 among。

The boy stood between his mother and his father.

這個男孩站在他的母親和他的父親之間。

母親和父親兩個人,故用介系詞 between。

Richard has always been popular among his classmates.

Richard在同學中一向很受歡迎。

班上同學多於二,故用介系詞 among。

介系詞 plus 加(上) 和 minus 減(去)

The rent will be NT$12,000, plus gas and electricity.

租金將是台幣12,000元,加上瓦斯費和電費。

What is 10 minus 7?

10減7是多少?


上面兩個例子的 plus 加(上) 和 minus 減(去) 都是介系詞。

介系詞並不限於一個單字,也有兩個或三個單字形成的介系詞:

介系詞範例
一個單字in, out, above, below, to, from, at, by, with, under, before, after
兩個單字across from, due to, up to, apart from, according to, thanks to, instead of, as for, out of, ahead of, except for, because of
三個單字in addition to, in front of, with regard to, in case of, by means of, in spite of, on behalf of

My house sits across from the cemetery.

我的房子坐立在墓地對面。

請注意,這裡的 across from 一字不能免。
若少掉 across,“My house sits from the cemetery.” 那是不通的句子。
若少掉 from,“My house sits across the cemetery.” 我的房子坐立在整座墓地上 (across 有從一端到另一端的意思)。你覺得那會是甚麼樣的房子呢?

In spite of not having an umbrella, I walked home in the rain.

儘管沒有傘,我在雨中走回家。

  • 104年學科能力測驗第14題
  • John should interact more often with his friends and family after work, in spite of staying in his room to play computer games.
  • John should interact more often with his friends and family after work, instead of staying in his room to play computer games.

"instead of" - 代替; 而不是…。
"in spite of" - 儘管;不顧。

介系詞片語是由「介系詞+受詞」所形成,通常用來當形容詞副詞,偶而也拿來當名詞使用。

The girl with curly red hair is walking on the street.

那個有捲曲紅髮的女孩正走在大街上。

名詞 hair 是 介系詞 with 的受詞, 兩個形容詞 curly 與 red 用來修飾 hair。"with curly red hair" 是個介系詞片語,當形容詞使用,修飾 The girl。
名詞 street 是 介系詞 on 的受詞, 冠詞 the 是個限定詞,修飾 street。"on the street" 是個介系詞片語,當副詞使用,修飾動詞片語 "is walking"。

After seven is a good time to call.

七點過後是來電話的好時間。

After seven 是個介系詞片語,當名詞使用。

About 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer over the course of her lifetime.

大約8名婦女就會有一人在她的一生會患上乳腺癌,。

About 1 in 8 women 是個介系詞片語,當名詞使用。

兩個或兩個以上介系詞片語,可以修飾同一個字。

The concert starts at 2:30 p.m. on Saturday.

音樂會週六下午2點30分開始。

介系詞 in, on, of, at 看似簡單,卻是最容易被不適當地使用。以下是一些國中基測試題有關介系詞的不正確用法:

  • Doing exercise after work is a good way for me to forget the troubles in the office.
  • Doing exercise after work is a good way for me to forget the troubles at the office.

題目來源:100年第二次國中基測英語科第12題。in the office 的介系詞 in 是錯誤的,應改為 at the office 才是正確。

  • During your two-week stay, we are going to take you to England for one week. I've never been there, either. But I'm sure we're going to have fun in this trip.
  • During your two-week stay, we are going to take you to England for one week. I've never been there, either. But I'm sure we're going to have fun on this trip.

題目來源:96年第一次國中基測英語科第43~45題。 But I'm sure we're going to have fun in this trip. 中的介系詞 in 是錯的, 應該用 on 才對, on this trip.

  • All the best wishes for your sweet sixteenth birthday. Have fun in the party!
  • All the best wishes for your sweet sixteenth birthday. Have fun at the party!

題目來源:90年第一次國中基測英語科第36~37題。in the party 的介系詞 in 是錯誤的,應改為 at the party 才是正確。

  • Our dog always hides food under the ground. She digs it out when she needs it.
  • Our dog always hides food in the ground. She digs it out when she needs it.

題目來源:94年第二次國中基測英語科第12題。under the ground 的介系詞 under 是錯誤的,應改為 in the ground 才是正確。注意:有"underground" (adj. 地面下的;祕密的, n. 地面下層;地下組織)這個字,沒有"under the ground"這種寫法。

  • Susan visits Jenny for the weekend. She arrives at the train station of Jenny’s town in the afternoon. Susan is calling Jenny now.
  • Susan visits Jenny for the weekend. She arrives at the train station in Jenny’s town in the afternoon. Susan is calling Jenny now.

題目來源:98年第一次國中基測英語科第34~35題.。of Jenny’s town 的介系詞 of 是錯誤的,應改為 in Jenny’s town 才是正確。

  • James bought three books in Favorite Books and three of Brown’s books in Silver House during the special sales. How much did he pay?
  • James bought three books at Favorite Books and three of Brown’s books at Silver House during the special sales. How much did he pay?

題目來源:97年第一次國中基測英語科第27題。在...書店應該用at,用 in 是不對的。

  • It was important for Kevin to finish his homework quickly because he had to help his parents sell fruit in the night market.
  • It was important for Kevin to finish his homework quickly because he had to help his parents sell fruit at the night market.

題目來源:96年第二次國中基測英語科第13題。在...夜市應該用at,用 in 是不對的。

某些形容詞與後面的介系詞緊密結合(形容詞+介系詞)形成「慣用語」,幾乎可以當做一個字來看待。

Are you afraid of dark?

形容詞 afraid 後面接介系詞 of 形成慣用語 afraid of (害怕)。

Jane is married to an Japanese.

形容詞 married 後面接介系詞 to 形成慣用語 married to (與...結婚)。

某些名詞後面習慣用特定的介系詞(名詞+介系詞), 例如: approval of, belief in, response to, etc. 讀者應勤查字典,使用正確的介系詞。

Her response to the criticism was very strong.

她對批評的回應是非常強硬的。

名詞 response 習慣後面跟介系詞 to。

很多慣用語或成語是由「動詞+介系詞」或「動詞+副詞+介系詞」所形成的片語動詞

I have to look after my sick grandpa.

我必須照顧我生病的爺爺。

片語動詞的意義經常與原來個別單字明顯不同,例如 look (看), after (後); 兩字相連 look after 變成「照顧」的意思。

請將正確答案拖放到適當的空格內,再按Solve鈕看結果。

介系詞練習

  1. My birthday is   May.
  2. I can't come to the meeting. Don't wait   me.
  3. I don't like walking alone in the streets   night.
  4. I'm tired   waiting for you.
  5. The library is just   the street.
  6. The police car chased the robbers   the streets.
  7. I have been waiting for you   seven o'clock.
  8. They dream   moving to Brazil.
  9. John is   work.
  10. I will have finished this essay   Friday.
across at at by for in of of since through

  • 你相信奇蹟?
  • Do you believe on miracles?
  • Do you believe in miracles?

believe in - "相信",它是個片語動詞。miracle - "奇蹟", 為可數名詞,可以有複數形式 miracles

請將正確答案拖放到適當的空格內,再按Solve鈕看結果。

介系詞練習

  1. He hasn't smoked   ages.
  2. Sarah is good   running.
  3. The money was divided equally   the three winners of the lottery.
  4. She is sitting   a chair.
  5. This song was written   John Denver.
  6. The secret stayed   you and me.
  7. You can look the word   in a dictionary.
  8. I don't like walking alone   the streets at night.
  9. If you have any questions, please email me   contact@taiwantestcentral.com, or contact me   Skype.
  10. It is a shock and a heartbreak to see how my daughter speaks about me,   all of my efforts to help her.
among at at between by despite for in on up via

偶而,介系詞會放在句子的最後面

Tom picked up a rock with which to hit the robber.

湯姆拿他撿起的那塊石頭打強盜。

Tom picked up a rock to hit the robber with.

把介系詞 with 挪到句子的最後面,或許較順口。

其他例子如:

The dress had not even been paid for.

這件衣服甚至都還沒有付帳。

What did you put the lamp there for?

你把燈放在那裡為何故?

Grammar



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