分詞 (Participles)

分詞是一種動狀詞,它是由動詞演變而來,分詞有現在分詞過去分詞兩種,它扮演著形容詞的角色,用來修飾「名詞」或「代名詞」,或是當補語使用。

現在分詞過去分詞
breaking news (突發的新聞)broken bike (壞掉的腳踏車)
sleeping baby (熟睡的嬰兒)burnt toast (燒焦的土司)

一般字典都會列出動詞的分詞形式,我們舉 write (寫) 、talk (講, 說) 和 teach (教, 講授) 為例:

動詞一般字典會列出字的轉變 (inflection)
writev. wrote, writ·ten, writ·ing, writes
talkv. talked, talk·ing, talks
teachv. taught, teach·ing, teach·es

字典通常以 "v." 標示動詞。其後字的順序是:過去式 (wrote),過去分詞 (writ•ten),現在分詞 (writ•ing),第三人稱、單數、現在式 (writes )。若過去式與過去分詞同形,則合併為一,如 (talked 或 taught)。

讀者不難發現現在分詞都是以 -ing 為字尾;而過去分詞字尾通常帶有 -ed, -en, -d, -t, -n, -ne, ...等等。

分詞的另一種功能是與助動詞形成各種時式。

藉由助動詞 Be 與現在分詞形成進行式

Be + 現在分詞 = 進行式
進行式完成進行式
現在am/are/is takinghave/has been taking
過去was/were takinghad been taking
未來shall/will be takingshall/will have been taking

藉由助動詞 Have 與過去分詞形成完成式

Have 動詞 + 過去分詞 = 完成式
完成式
現在完成式have/has taken
過去完成式had taken
未來完成式shall/will have taken

過去分詞還有一種特殊功能,前面加上助動詞 Be 可以形成被動語態

助動詞 Be + 過去分詞 = 被動語態

My room was cleaned yesterday.

我的房間昨天被清理過。


Have
Has
Had
+ been + 過去分詞 = 完成式被動語態

He has already written a letter. (完成式主動語態)

A letter has already been written by him. (完成式被動語態)

請填入適當的分詞:

  1. She is totally  confused  (confuse).
  2. The girl sat  crying  (cry) on the sofa.
  3. I am  interested  (interest) in seeing that movie.
  4. This movie is really  exciting  (excite).
  5. Their marriage was  broken  (break) up.
  6. She left the house  whistling  (whistle).
  7. He seems to be  depressed  (depress) lately.
  8. The bicycle  ridden  (ride) by the young kid is mine.
  9. I was very much  surprised  (surprise) to hear that news.
  10. His statements are  encouraging  (encourage).

基本1200個字詞裡有兩個字:"bored" 與 "boring",它們是取自於動詞 "bore(使厭煩)" 的「過去分詞」和「現在分詞」。教育部為什麼不列原式"bore",而列它的「過去分詞」和「現在分詞」呢?應該是要同學們能夠區別 "bored" 與"boring" 的不同用法。句子 “I am bored.” 和 “I am boring.” 意義大不相同,使用不當就會鬧笑話。

The lesson was boring, so I felt bored.

這個課程是枯燥的,所以我覺得無聊。

除了"bored"與"boring",類似的字組還有:

分詞當形容詞使用
過去分詞現在分詞
無聊、沒趣boredboring
有興趣interestedinteresting
失意沮喪frustratedfrustrating
興奮excitedexciting
困惑confusedconfusing
受驚、害怕frightenedfrightening
氣惱annoyedannoying
驚喜suprisedsuprising
著迷fascinatedfascinating
失望disappointeddisappointing
極為震驚devastateddevastating

一般而言,上表現在分詞部分通常是在描述對於某人或某事是怎樣的,而過去分詞則是表示自己或他人(會有感覺的, 一定是人, 而非事物)的感受。因此,“I am bored.” 我感到無聊。而“I am boring.”則變成我是枯燥無味的。要是在眾人面前講"I am boring.",大概有人會瞪大眼睛看著你。

假如句子的主詞是指人,我們以下面例子來說明如何使用跟情感有關的分詞。僅一字之差(過去分詞或現在分詞)句子的語意完全不一樣。

He is a depressed person.

他是一個抑鬱的人。 (主詞 He ,他自己感到抑鬱)

He is a depressing person.

他是一個令人沮喪的人。(讓別人感到沮喪)


I am interested in Mathematics.

我對數學極感興趣。(主詞 I ,我自己的感受)

Am I an interesting person?

我是個(讓人覺得)有趣的人嗎?(別人的感受)


簡單判斷:使用過去分詞是指主詞自身的感受;使用現在分詞是指他人(相對於主詞)的感受

現在分詞通常是在『描述他人或他物』,而過去分詞則是表示主詞『自身的感受』。

  1. That was an  interesting  (interesting, interested) book.
  2. Ashley didn't seem  interested  (interesting, interested) in the book.
  3. The movie was so  boring  (boring, bored) that Jennifer fell asleep.
  4. Do you think Frank is a  boring  (boring, bored) person?
  5. My neighbors are very  annoying  (annoying, annoyed) because they always play loud music.
  6. She was  annoyed  (annoyed, annoying) to discover that her husband had cheaten on her.
  7. Greg has a very  annoying  (annoying, annoyed) habit.

使用過去分詞是指主詞本身的感受;使用現在分詞是指他人(相對於主詞)的感受。

現在分詞通常是在『描述他人或他物』,而過去分詞則是表示主詞『自身的感受』。

  1. We were all  confused  (confused, confusing) about what the teacher wanted.
  2. Many of the traffic signs in Taipei are  confusing  (confused, confusing).
  3. I'm  confused  (confused, confusing) about all politics in general.
  4. I was  surprised  (surprised, surprising) to find money in my pocket.
  5. Adam was  excited  (excited, exciting) to see the show for the first time.
  6. I was  devastated  (devastated, devastating) to hear about the earthquake in Japan. I have a lot of friends who live there.
  7. We were deeply  disappointed  (disappointed, disappointing) at the result.
  8. It was  disappointing  (disappointing, disappointed) to learn that I didn’t get a good grade.

使用過去分詞是指主詞本身的感受;使用現在分詞是指他人(相對於主詞)的感受。

Grammar



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