被動語態 (Passive Voice)

被動語態是指句子主詞是動作的承受者。被動語態動詞的基本結構是: 助動詞 be +過去分詞

首先看幾個例子:

被動語態的例子
1.This story was written by Helen Keller.
這篇故事是海倫凱勒寫的。
2.The guests were shocked by the girl's foul language.
女孩的髒話使客人們感到震驚。
3.I am deeply touched by your friendship!
你的友誼讓我深受感動!
4.That medicine is best taken after meals.
這藥最好是飯後服用。
5.The car was painted bright red.
這部車子被塗上鮮紅色。
6.The door is not locked.
門沒有被上鎖。

如何將主動語態改成被動語態?

主動語態被動語態
Students clean the classrooms every evening.The classrooms are cleaned by students every evening.
主詞 Students; 動詞 clean; 受詞 the classrooms主詞 The classrooms; 動詞 are cleaned; 受詞 students

主動語態改被動語態通常遵循下面三個原則:

一.將主動語態的受詞(the classrooms)改為被動語態的主詞。
二.將主動語態的主要動詞(clean) 改為 「be 動詞 +過去分詞」的結構(are cleaned), be 動詞的單、複數要與被動語態的主詞一致。
三.將主動語態的主詞(Student)置於介系詞 by 之後,並將整個介系詞片語 by students ,放在主要動詞 are cleaned 之後(有時可省略)。

我們使用被動語態,主要是讓主動語態的受詞顯得更重要。我們把主動語態的受詞放到被動語態句子的前面,彰顯該受詞甚於動作的執行者 。因此上句所要表達的是 "The classrooms are cleaned" (教室被打掃乾淨)。至於是誰把它打掃乾淨,並不重要。把 "by students" 省略掉都可以。

The classrooms are cleaned every evening.

教室每天傍晚被打掃乾淨。

上面例句1, 2, 3 在動詞片語"助動詞 be +過去分詞"後面都有個 by。介系詞 by 有時是可以省略的,如例句4, 5, 6。

若句子含直接受詞和間接受詞,有兩種方式可以將主動語態改為被動語態。

某些動詞習慣上以虛構主詞 "It" 及被動語態呈現,例如 said, believed, supposed, known,...等等。

It is believed that she is ill.

動詞 let 當作「允許, 讓」解釋時,不能用在被動語態, 含有 let 的主動語態句子改為被動語態時,用 allow 取代 let。

Since Nicole was sick, the teacher let her leave early. (主動語態)

由於 Nicole 病了,老師讓她提早離開。

Since Nicole was sick, she was allowed to leave early. (被動語態)

由於 Nicole 病了,她被(老師)允許提早離開。重點是病了、提早離開; "by the teacher" 不是重點,因此省略掉。

let 與 go 所形成的慣用語 let go,「解僱」的意思,就可以有被動語態。

Business was slack and many employees were let go.

蕭條的生意導致許多員工被遣散。

注意:“助動詞 be + 過去分詞” 的結構不一定都是被動語態,連綴動詞(如 be,feel,look,seem等)後面常跟著已轉化為形容詞的過去分詞,用作補語,表示狀態。 如:

Jennifer is married.

Jennifer結婚了。

married 是形容詞, 本句是 S + V + C 的句型,married 當主詞補語,它屬於主動語態。

My microwave oven is broken

我的微波爐壞了。

broken 是形容詞, 本句是 S + V + C 的句型,broken當主詞補語,它屬於主動語態。

  • 會議持續了兩個小時。
  • The meeting was lasted two hours.
  • The meeting lasted two hours.

不及物動詞 last 不能用於被動語態或進行式。

除非要彰顯動作的承受著,一般而言,應盡量少使用被動語態。比較下面兩個例子,讀者不難發現主動語態要比被動語態顯得有活力。

被動語態My nose was punched by him.
主動語態He punched me in the nose!

但是當動作的執行者不是那麼重要或不知是誰的情況下,最好用被動語態。

School is cancelled today!

學校今天停課!

是誰決定停課其實不重要。(誰在乎哪個人下達停課命令?)

Our precious tax dollars should be spent on immediate solutions to maintain public safety.

我們納稅人寶貴的金錢應該用在即時的解決方案,以維護公眾安全。

我們要強調的是納稅人寶貴的金錢,而非花錢的政府部門。

Scattered showers are expected throughout the Nantou County region into Sunday morning.

預計整個南投縣地區將於週日早晨出現零星陣雨。

誰做的氣象預報並不重要,重點在於將有零星的陣雨出現。
shower - "短時間的下雨",是可數名詞;scattered - "分散的;疏疏落落的", 形容詞,修飾複數名詞 showers。

有時候為了怕得罪人,禮貌上使用被動語態較恰當。

被動語態Your application was rejected.
您的申請被駁回。
主動語態We rejected your application.
我們駁回您的申請。

下面例子說明其他一些不同時態的被動語態

現在完成被動式 = have
has
+ been + 過去分詞

The contract has been signed.

合同已被簽署。

現在完成被動式

Both parties have signed the contract.

雙方簽署了合同。

現在完成主動式

過去完成被動式 = had + been + 過去分詞

A letter had been written by Anna when I visited her.

當我訪問她的時候,一封信已被安娜寫好。

過去完成被動式

Anna had written a letter when I visited her.

當我訪問她的時候,安娜已寫好一封信。

過去完成主動式

請將主動語態改成被動語態:

  1. The teacher had punished the boy.
    The boy  had   been   punished   by  the teacher.
  2. Many tourists have visited that castle.
    That castle  has   been   visited   by  many tourists.
現在進行被動式 = am
are
is
+ being + 過去分詞

The girl is reading a book.

現在進行主動語態

A book is being read by a girl.

現在進行被動語態

They are building MRT lines across Taipei city.

現在進行主動語態

MRT lines are being built across Taipei city.

現在進行被動語態

過去進行被動式 = was
were
+ being + 過去分詞

They were making tennis rackets in that factory before it closed.

過去進行主動語態

Tennis rackets were being made in that factory before it closed.

過去進行被動語態

What was being made in that factory before it closed?

疑問句的過去進行被動語態


一般完成進行時式的被動語態較少被使用,下面舉數例說明。

現在完成進行被動式 = have
has
+ been + being + 過去分詞

A young girl has been being held captive by a kidnapper.

一位年輕女孩已經被綁匪監禁。

現在完成進行式被動語態

This building has been being constructed for six months and has still not been completed.

這房屋已經蓋了半年,至今仍未完成。

現在完成進行式被動語態

過去完成進行被動式 = had + been + being + 過去分詞

Mr. Chen had been being sought since 2003 on an arrest warrant on 17 counts relating to business malpractice.

自2003年以來陳先生已因17起有關不當商業行為罪名而被通緝。

過去完成進行式被動語態

含有情態助動詞的被動語態就只有下面兩種形式:

情態助動詞 + be + 過去分詞 (現在形式)

The brochure will be finished next week.

這本小冊子將在下週完成。

She will be invited to the picnic by her friends.

她將被她的朋友們邀請去參加野餐。

English should be taught to a child early on.

英語應該及早教導孩子。


情態助動詞 + have been + 過去分詞 (過去形式)

This museum must have been built in the 1930s.

這個博物館一定是建於20世紀30年代。

Grammar



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