過去簡單式 (Past Tense)

過去簡單式用以表示過去所發生的動作,並且這個動作在過去某一時間點已經結束。

I talked to my mother yesterday.

我昨天跟我的母親談過話。

句子含有表示過去時間的副詞,如 yesterday, last night...等通常動詞用過去簡單式。

He was a teacher in his thirties.

他30幾歲時曾經是個老師。(但現在已經不是了)

I loved you; and perhaps I love you still.

我曾經愛過你;也許仍愛著。

摘錄自俄國詩人普希金(Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin,1799-1837) 的一首短詩<我曾經愛過你 (I Loved You)>。


過去簡單式的動詞形式,通常是在動詞原式後面加 -ed 或 -d 而形成,這類動詞我們稱之為規則動詞,如上面例句中的 talked (動詞原式 talk 加 -ed), 或是 loved (動詞原式 love 加 -d)。 而不規則動詞或是Be動詞的過去式,沒有一定的形式,只能靠死背來記住。

  • 你昨天的午餐吃什麼?
  • What do you eat for lunch yesterday?
  • What did you eat for lunch yesterday?

時間副詞 yesterday 表過去,“did + 主詞 + 動詞原式” 形成過去簡單式的問句。

Tina _______ hamburgers for lunch every day last week.

(A) had (B) has had (C) has (D) was having

  • 艾米:桑迪,看! 我拿到了駕照。
    桑迪:是嗎? 那很棒! 你打算買車嗎?
  • Amy: Sandy, look! I've got a driver's license.
    Sandy: You do? That's great! Are you going to buy a car?
  • Amy: Sandy, look! I got a driver's license.
    Sandy: You did? That's great! Are you going to buy a car?

題目來源:91年第一次國中基測英語科第25~26題。
句子 "Amy: Sandy, look! I’ve got a driver’s license." 應該用 “I got”,因為考駕照、拿到駕照這件事情是在過去時間發生的事(已經結束)、並沒有一直持續到現在,所以用過去簡單式才對。 相對應Sandy的回答:You do? 也需改成過去簡單式:You did?

以過去簡單式或 "used to" 來表示過去的習慣

My brother got up at five every morning.

我哥哥過去每天早上五點起床。

My brother used to get up at five every morning.

我哥哥過去每天早上五點起床。


但是現在已經不再每天早上五點起床。

I shopped at Eslite Bookstore regularly.

我過去定期逛誠品書店。

I used to shop at Eslite Bookstore regularly.

我過去定期逛誠品書店。


但是現在已經不再定期逛誠品書店了。

  • 她曾經吸食海洛因而樂翻天,並以帳篷為家。 現在她正在幫助無家可歸的街友。
  • She is used to get high on heroin and lived in a tent. Now she's helping homeless people get off the streets.
  • She used to get high on heroin and lived in a tent. Now she's helping homeless people get off the streets.

used to 過去的習慣。

句子的主要動詞為過去式時,通常從屬子句的動詞也是過去式。

I thought she was a teacher.

我以為她是一個老師。

Stephen got out safely before his house collapsed.

在他的房子倒塌之前,史帝芬已經安全地離開了。

與現在事實相反的假設語氣,不受上述過去時式的使用規則所限制

Steve acts as though he were the boss. (= but he is not the boss)

史蒂夫的行為,就好像他自己是老闆。

但是他不是老闆。
Steve acts as if he were the boss.
as though = as if

I wish [that] he were here now.

我希望他現在人在這裡。

要是他現在人在這裡就好了。事實上他人不在這裡。
If he were here right now, he would help us.

Be動詞的過去時式依「人稱」與「單、複數」而有不同形式 。

  • 過去,高學位往往是成功的關鍵。 這些日子,學位可能不如創造力和真實的工作經驗那麼重要。
  • In the past, an advanced degree is often the key to success. These days, a degree can be less important than creativity and real job experience.
  • In the past, an advanced degree was often the key to success. These days, a degree can be less important than creativity and real job experience.

"In the past" 指的是過去,故用去時式 was。

Grammar



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