關係代名詞 (Relative Pronouns)

關係代名詞主要有who, whom, whose, which, that。關係代名詞身兼代名詞連接詞兩種角色。一方面它代替先前出現的先行詞(名詞、代名詞或名詞片語),另一方面它用來引導關係子句,來修飾所替代的先行詞,形成複句

The girl who is riding a tricycle is my sister.

那個正在騎三輪車的女孩是我的妹妹。

關係代名詞 who,一方面它代替先前出現的名詞 girl,另一方面引導關係子句"who is riding a tricycle" 來修飾所替代的先行詞 "girl",它具有連接詞的功能。

關係子句"who is riding a tricycle" 形容前面的名詞 "girl",因為具有形容詞的功能,所以又稱形容詞子句。關係子句是一種從屬子句,它不能單獨存在,必須與主要子句”The girl is my sister”結合,形成完整的句子。

Somewhere along the road, there is a shop which sells things from foreign countries.

沿著這條路的某處,有一家店賣國外的東西。

關係代名詞 which,一方面它代替先前出現的名詞 shop,另一方面引導關係子句"which sells things from foreign countries" 來修飾所替代的先行詞 shop。

我們通常用 who 來代替『人』; which 來代替『事物』或『動物』,而 that 有時候可以取代 who 或 which。

He has a dog which barks loudly.

他有一隻狗它吠叫很大聲。

關係代名詞 which,一方面它代替先前出現的名詞 dog,另一方面引導關係子句"which barks loudly" 來修飾所替代的先行詞 "dog"。

I like the watch which my father gave me.
I like the watch that my father gave me.

我喜歡我父親給我的手錶。

用 that 代替 which,意思相同。
關係代名詞 which/that 代替先前出現的名詞 watch,並引導關係子句與主要子句連接形成複句。


  • 他就是會竭盡全力拼搏那樣的人。
  • He's the kind of person which will fight tooth and nail.
  • He's the kind of person who will fight tooth and nail.

用 who 表示 person (人)。
fight tooth and nail是個俚語,指在勢單力薄的情況下竭盡全力拼命奮戰。

關係代名詞的格

關係代名詞的由它在從屬子句所處的位置來決定。who 用在主格的位置, whom 為 who 的受格,whose 為 who 的所有格。which 與 that 均可作為主格或受格。

先行詞主格受格所有格
whowhomwhose
事物 / 動物whichwhich
人 / 事物 / 動物thatthat

The girl _______ called you is my friend.

(A) who (B) whom

The girl _______ you called is my friend.

(A) whom (B) who

關係代名詞的動詞與先行詞一致

關係代名詞 who, which, that 使用的動詞必須在「身」(人稱)與「數」(單、複數)方面與先行詞一致。

I always buy name brand clothes that are cheap.

我總是買便宜的名牌衣服。

先行詞 clothes 是複數, 關係代名詞 that 用複數動詞 are。

Find a swimming suit that fits your figure.

找到一件適合你身材的泳衣。

先行詞 suit 是單數, 關係代名詞 that 用第三人稱單數動詞 fits。

I accept this award on behalf of all the children around the world who are struggling to get an education. — Malala Yousafzai

我代表世界各地苦苦掙紮想接受教育的所有孩子接受這個獎。 — 馬拉拉·優素福扎伊 (2014年諾貝爾和平獎得主)

先行詞 children 是複數, 關係代名詞 who 用複數動詞 are struggling。

請將正確答案拖放到適當的空格內,再按Solve鈕看結果。

需要人的人擁有最長的生命。

People who   people   the longest lives.

has have need needs

  • 我們使用語言的能力是這使我們有別於動物的眾多因素之一。
  • Our ability to use language is one of the things that sets us apart from animals.
  • Our ability to use language is one of the things that set us apart from animals.

先行詞 things 是複數,因此用複數動詞 set。

關係代名詞的省略

句子裡省略掉關係代名詞,較常發生在口語中。下列說明關係代名詞可以省略的時機。

(一) 關係子句中已有主詞,而關係代名詞是作為關係子句的『受詞』,該關係代名詞可以省略。

This is the girl (whom) I saw in the park last night.

關係子句中已有主詞 I,且關係代名詞 whom 是動詞 saw 的受詞,這種情形 whom可以省略。

I know the singer (whom) you're talking about.

關係子句中已有主詞 you,且關係代名詞 whom 是介系詞 about 的受詞,這種情形 whom可以省略。

Where's the cup (which) she gave you yesterday?

關係子句中已有主詞 she,且關係代名詞 which 是動詞 gave的受詞,這種情形 which可以省略。


(二) 限定用法的關係子句有如下的結構:

關係代名詞 + 助動詞 be + 現在分詞
過去分詞

顯然這裡的關係代名詞是關係子句的主詞。關係代名詞和助動詞 be可以一起省略。

The boy (who is) sitting over there is my son.

"who is" 可以省略。
The boy sitting over there is my son.

The house (which was) painted in red on the hill burnt down last night.

"which was" 可以省略。
The house painted in red on the hill burnt down last night.

關係代名詞不能省略

(一) 非限定性的關係代名詞不能省略。

The car, which I was driving at the time, suddenly caught fire.

which 作為非限定性的關係代名詞不能省略。

(二) 限定性的關係代名詞是關係子句的主詞,且跟著一般動詞

What's the name of the girl who won the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize?

限定性的關係代名詞 who 是關係子句的主詞,但沒有緊跟著助動詞be,不能省略。

(三) 關係代名詞當受詞用,前面有介系詞,不可以省略。

This is the house in which I was born.

which 不能省略,除非改變介系詞的位置。

This is the house I was born in.

使用關係代名詞,可以把兩個單句合併成一個複句

兩個單句
Laura has a boyfriend.He lives in Japan.
蘿拉有個男朋友。他住在日本。

合併成一個複句
使用who(主格)關係代名詞來合併句子
Laura has a boyfriend who lives in Japan.
蘿拉有個男朋友,他住在日本。

關係代名詞 who 因為具有連接詞的功能,它可以把兩個單句合併成一個複句。
who 當 lives 的主詞,故用主格。


兩個單句
Laura has a boyfriend.Laura loves him very much.
蘿拉有個男朋友。蘿拉非常愛他。

合併成一個複句
使用whom(受格)關係代名詞來合併句子
Laura has a boyfriend whom she loves very much.
蘿拉有個男朋友,她非常愛他。

關係代名詞 whom 因為具有連接詞的功能,它可以把兩個單句合併成一個複句。
whom 當 loves 的受詞,故用受格。


兩個單句
Laura has a boyfriend.His house was destroyed in the quake.
蘿拉有個男朋友。他的房子在地震中被摧毀。

合併成一個複句
使用whose(所有格)關係代名詞來合併句子
Laura has a boyfriend whose house was destroyed in the quake.
蘿拉有個男朋友,他的房子在地震中被摧毀。

關係代名詞 whose 因為具有連接詞的功能,它可以把兩個單句合併成一個複句。
whose 當 house 的限定詞,故用所有格。

Who 的用法

I have an aunt. She teaches English at our school.

我有一個阿姨。她在我們學校教英語。

代名詞 She 代替名詞 aunt. 我們可以利用關係代名詞 who 來重寫上面這兩句,使變為一個複句

I have an aunt who teaches English at our school.

這裡的 "who" 既當代名詞,代替先行詞 "aunt",又當連接詞,引導從屬子句 "who teaches English at our school" 來修飾名詞 "aunt" (阿姨)。阿姨是"人",所以要用 "who" 不能用 "which"。

The girl who is sitting there is my sister.

坐在那裡的女孩是我的妹妹。

由 who 所引導的形容詞子句 "who is sitting there", 用以修飾先行詞 "The girl"。

  • 他認為誰偷了錢?
  • Whom did he think had stolen the money?
  • Who did he think had stolen the money?

"Who" had stolen the money? 這裡的關係代名詞要用主格。

Which 的用法

The idea of this great movie comes from the novel.

這部好電影的構想來自於小說。

The novel has already been read and loved by many people.

這小說已經被很多人閱讀並受到喜愛。

The idea of this great movie comes from the novel which has already been read and loved by many people.

這部好電影的構想來自於已經被很多人閱讀並受到喜愛的小說。

關係代名詞 which 既為代名詞,代替先行詞 "novel",又當連接詞,引導從屬子句 "which has already been read and loved by many people." 來修飾名詞 "novel" (小說)。小說是"物",所以要用 "which" 不能用 "who"。

  • 我喜歡閱讀我上週買的書。
  • I enjoy reading the book which I bought it last week.
  • I enjoy reading the book which I bought last week.

it 是多餘的, 因為 which 已經是bought 的受詞,不需要再加 it。

Whose 的用法

The boy failed the test.

男孩未能通過考試。

The boy's mother is the school principal.

男孩的母親是學校校長。

The boy whose mother is the school principal failed the test.

這個男孩,他的母親是學校校長,未能通過測試。

關係代名詞 whose,所有格,指這男孩的。 由 whose 所引導的形容詞子句 "whose mother is the school principal" 用以修飾The boy。

Whom 的用法

She has a teacher whom she respects.

她有一個被她尊敬的老師。

He is the best American author of whom you have never heard.

他是你從來沒有聽說過的美國最好的作家。

  • 有25名學生在課堂上,沒有一個人會講日語。
  • There are 25 students in the class, none of them speak Japanese.
  • There are 25 students in the class, none of whom speak Japanese.

句子 "There are 25 students in the class, none of them speak Japanese."其實錯在逗號 comma (,),"There are 25 students in the class." 與 "None of them speak Japanese." 都是完整的句子;兩個完整的句子不能用comma (,) 隔開,若改寫為:
There are 25 students in the class; none of them speak Japanese. (用分號";"隔開) 或
There are 25 students in the class. None of them speak Japanese. (用句點"."分成兩個句子) 都是正確的寫法,或是把 them 改成關係代名詞 whom 也可以。

That 的用法

This is the boy who failed the Basic Competence Test.
This is the boy that failed the Basic Competence Test.

是這個男孩他基測沒有及格。

Is this the girl whom we met at Taipei Station yesterday?
Is this the girl that we met at Taipei Station yesterday?

我們昨天在台北車站碰見的是這個女孩嗎?

The bench which Uncle James made was very sturdy.
The bench that Uncle James made was very sturdy.

詹姆斯叔叔做的板凳非常堅固。

如同上面例子所示,that 有時可以取代 who, whom, 或 which,但有些例外:

關係代名詞 that 作為介系詞的受詞時,不能將that 直接放在介系詞之後

This is the house in which I was born. (正確的句子)
This is the house in that I was born. (錯誤的句子)
This is the house that I was born in. (正確的句子)

限定性的關係子句用 that, 非限定性的關係子句用 who, whom, 或 which。 "that"不能用於非限定性的關係子句。

My sister that lives in Taipei is named Mary.
My other sister, who lives in Tainan, is named Nancy.

"that lives in Taipei" 限定住在台北的妹妹。第二句"who lives in Tainan",只是附加說明,因為是非限定性的關係子句,不能用 that。

指人時用 who,不要用 which。that 雖然通常是指事物,它也經常用來指一群或一類人。

The team that scores the most points in this game will win the tournament.

這場比賽分數最高分的球隊將贏得錦標賽。

The team 球隊,指一群人,用關係代名詞 that 。

The only thing _______ is constant is change.

(A) that (B) who (C) whose (D) where (E) whom

『關係副詞』取代{ (in, at, on, for) + which }

介系詞 (in, at, on, for) 和關係代名詞 which 有時可以被關係副詞 when, where, why 取代而形成關係子句

This is the restaurant in which we met for the first time.
This is the restaurant where we met for the first time.

這是我們第一次相會的餐廳。

關係副詞 where 取代 in which。

五個關係代名詞,除了that 外, who, whom, whose 和 which 也可以當作疑問代名詞使用。

who, whom 和 which 等字尾也可以加 -ever 形成複合關係代名詞 whoever, whomever 和 whichever。

Grammar



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