不定代名詞 (Indefinite Pronouns)

不定代名詞所替代的名詞通常是指不明確的未定的的人、地、事、物。

你(you)、我(I)、他(he)、她(she) 都是指確定的人,某些代名詞,如:someone, anyone, nobody, anybody 則是指不確定的人,我們稱之為不定代名詞

不定代詞傳達了「所有 (all)」,「任何 (any)」,「毫無 (none)」,「一些 (some)」等的理念。

One of the online sellers is my friend.

One 當作不定代名詞使用,是指許多網上銷售商之一,沒有特別指定是哪一個。

Many bought tickets to the show, but few actually came.

Many 和 few 都是不定代名詞。


不定代名詞範例
allanysome
noneoneoneself
otheranothereach
bothfewmany
mosteitherneither
anybodyanyoneanything
everybodyeveryoneeverything
nobodyno onenothing
somebodysomeonesomething

不定代名詞可用作主詞、主詞補語 、受詞同位語

Everybody can do something, but nobody can do everything.

每個人都可以做一些事,但沒有人能做所有的事。

這裡的不定代名詞 Everybody 和 nobody 是主詞, something 和 everything 是受詞。

Many were invited to the lunch but only a few showed up.

許多人應邀出席午餐,但只有少數人出現。

不定代名詞 Many 為句子主詞,「 很多人」被邀請,但沒有一個明確的數目。

Give a registration card to each.

給每人一份登記卡。

不定代名詞 each 當介系詞 to 的受詞。

They both agree to go.

他們兩人都同意去。

不定代名詞 both作主詞 they 的同位語。

Money isn't everything.

金錢並不是萬能的。

不定代名詞 everything 作主詞 Money 的補語。

The house had been searched and everything was thrown onto the floor.

房子已被搜查,一切物品被丟滿地。

不定代名詞 everything 當動詞 was thrown 的主詞。

Many suffer from mental illness and others have disabilities that prevent them from working.

許多人患有精神疾病,還有其他人因為殘障而無法工作。

Many 和 others 都是不定代名詞,且當主詞使用。

Why are you always arguing with each other?

你們為什麼總是互相爭吵呢?

整個片語 "each other" 是個代名詞,當介系詞 with 的受詞。

  • Alex 和 Alice在週二宣布訂婚。兩人都是28歲。
  • Alex and Alice announced their engagement on Tuesday. Both is 28 years old.
  • Alex and Alice announced their engagement on Tuesday. Both are 28 years old.

不定代名詞 both 後面要接複數動詞 。

不定代名詞有些是單數,有些則是複數,也有些像集合名詞般視其在句子中的意義來決定是單數或是複數。一般而言:

Each 和 some-, any-, every-, no- 形成的複合字都是單數

不定代名詞 Each 經常後面跟著一個帶有複數名詞的介系詞片語,很容易被學生誤以為要用複數動詞。請注意:不定代名詞 each 後面一定要用單數動詞。

Each of the students has won at least one of the International awards.

Each 之後的介系詞片語 "of the students", students 雖然是個複數名詞,請不要被誤導而使用複數動詞 have won。Each 之後的動詞要用單數動詞 has won。

Each of the planets in the solar system circles around the sun in its own orbit, and this prevents them from colliding with each other.

100年指定科目考試第6題。

Each 之後的介系詞片語 "of the planets", planets 雖然是個複數名詞,請不要被誤導而使用複數動詞 circle。Each 之後的動詞要用單數動詞circles。

不定代名詞諸如: everyone, everybody, everything, everywhere 很容易被誤以為是多數,其實這些代名詞都要用單數動詞。

We couldn’t find a parking space. Everywhere was so crowded.

我們無法找到一個停車位。到處都是如此擁擠。

不定代名詞 everywhere 後面要用單數動詞 was。

Everyone has finished his or her homework.

每個人都做完了他(她)的功課。

不定代名詞 everyone 後面要用單數動詞 has。

  • 我對自己說:"一切都會沒事的。"
  • I say to myself, "Everything are going to be all right."
  • I say to myself, "Everything is going to be all right."

由 some, any, every, no 與 -one (指人), -body (指人), -thing (指事物) 形成的複合字,如 somebody, anyone, everything 均當做單數使用,做主詞時必須使用單數動詞。

Nothing _______ happened since we came here.

(A) have (B) has (C) had been (D) will be

謎語 (請猜一個字):
『什麼』是:比神更偉大,比惡魔更邪惡,窮人有了它,富人不需要它,而且如果你吃了它,你就會死翹翹?(What is greater than God, more evil than the devil, the poor have it, the rich don't need it, and if you eat it, you'll die?)

  1.  Nothing  is greater than God.
  2.  Nothing  is more evil than the Devil.
  3. The poor have  nothing .
  4. The rich need  nothing .
  5. And if you eat  nothing , you'll die.

答案是“Nothing"。注意:nothing 後面要用單數動詞,如第一句和第二句的 "is"。

  • 不要碰任何東西!
  • Don't touch nothing!
  • Don't touch anything!

nothing 本身具有否定意思,Don't 也是否定,避免使用雙重否定

If you add fuel to the fire, you do _______ to make a bad situation even worse.

(A) everything (B) nothing (C) something (D) anything

不定代名詞 both, few, many, others, 和 several 都是複數

Both my parents are farmers.

我的父母都是農民。

Both 使用複數動詞 are。

Many of the girls eat their fruit before eating their meals.

許多女孩飯前先吃她們的水果

Many 使用複數動詞 eat 和複數代名詞 their。

  • 有些人已經辭掉工作了。
  • Several has quit working.
  • Several have quit working.

Several 是用作複數,要用複數動詞 have。其他如 both, few, many, others 也都是作為複數。

不定代名詞 all, any, more, most, none, 和 some 使用單數或複數動詞,視句子語意而定。

All the cake is gone.

所有蛋糕一掃而空。

All the girls in my class are smart.

我班上所有的女生都是聰明的。

如何區別不定代名詞 nothing, anything, everything 後面跟著but的不同意義?

nothing
anything
everything
but...

句型 "nothing but A" - 除了 A,什麼都不要。
句型 "anything but A" - 不要A,但 B或(和)C,或其他D、E都可以考慮。
句型 "everything but A" - 唯一不要的是A,其他都可以接受。

Paul wants nothing but pizza.

保羅只想要披薩。

除了披薩之外,保羅不要有其他食物。

Give Paul anything but pizza.

給保羅任何東西,但不要披薩。

保羅可以吃各種食物,但不是披薩。

Paul will eat everything but pizza.

除了披薩,保羅會把一切吃掉。

除了披薩,保羅將吃掉面前所有的食物。

不定代名詞 anything, something 後面經常加 else 來表達其他或另外的事:

Does anyone have anything else to add?

有沒有人有什麼要補充?

I'm really sorry, but I've got something else on.

我真的很抱歉,但我有別的事。

某些不定代名詞的所有格與名詞類似,在後面加('s)而形成。

主格受格所有格
anyoneanyoneanyone's
somebody elsesomebody elsesomebody else's

anyone's guess

somebody else's child

不定代名詞 others 是 other 的複數形式,other 與 another 也可以作為限定詞,請參考 Other、others、the other 或 another 的不同用法。

Grammar



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