過去完成式 (Past Perfect Tense)

過去完成式 = had + 過去分詞

過去完成式表示過去某一時間或某一動作之前已經完成的動作或經驗。過去完成式通常用於描述過去發生的兩個事件,先發生的事件用過去完成式,後發生的事件用過去簡單式來表達。

The boy was hungry; he had not eaten for 8 hours.

男孩餓了,他已經8小時沒有進食。

The plane had already taken off when I arrived at the airport.

當我到達機場時,這架飛機已經起飛了。

I had never cooked before I went to college.

在我上大學之前,我從來沒有做過飯。

I had already done my homework when he came to visit .

當他來訪問時,我已經做完了功課。

When we arrived, the band _______ playing.

(A) just finished (B) had been finished (C) has just finished (D) had just finished

If-條件句有三大類,其中第三類的If從屬子句要用過去完成式

If I had studied harder, I would have passed the exam.

If Jason had had the money, he would have bought a Ferrari.

過去完成式也經常出現在轉述句裡。

She asked if I had read The Lord of the Rings.

帶有副詞 ever, never, still, just, already, yet 等的句子,通常需要用現在完成式或過去完成式。

I had never heard that before.

我從來沒有聽說過。

never 通常用在帶有否定意思的肯定句。

Nicole said she had already read this novel.

妮可說,她已經讀過這本小說。

already 通常用在表示比預期發生得早的動作。

  • 她的父母說,她已經離開了。
  • Her parents said she left already.
  • Her parents said she had left already.

“said”是過去式,said之前已經完成的動作必須是過去完成式,不要用過去式取代過去完成式時。already 通常用在現在完成式或過去完成式。

Grammar



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