過去完成式 (Past Perfect Tense)

過去完成式 = had + 過去分詞

過去完成式表示過去某一時間或某一動作之前已經完成的動作或經驗。過去完成式通常用於描述過去發生的兩個事件,先發生的事件用過去完成式,後發生的事件用過去簡單式來表達。

The boy was hungry; he had not eaten for 8 hours.

男孩餓了,他已經8小時沒有進食。

The plane had already taken off when I arrived at the airport.

當我到達機場時,這架飛機已經起飛了。

I had never cooked before I went to college.

在我上大學之前,我從來沒有做過飯。

I had already done my homework when he came to visit .

當他來拜訪時,我已經做完了功課。

When we arrived, the band _______ playing.

(A) had just finished (B) just finished (C) had been finished (D) has just finished

  • 今天中午當我試圖買東西的時候,我意識到我丟了錢包。
  • I realized that I have lost my wallet when I tried to buy something at noon.
  • I realized that I had lost my wallet when I tried to buy something at noon.

"丟了錢包" 發生在過去式 "realized - 意識到" 之前,故用過去完成式。

條件句有三大類,其中第三類的 If 從屬子句要用過去完成式

If I had studied harder, I would have passed the exam.

如果我有更加用功的話,我就會通過考試了。

If Jason had had the money, he would have bought a Ferrari.

如果捷森有錢的話,他就會買一輛法拉利車了。

過去完成式也經常出現在轉述句裡。

She asked if I had read The Lord of the Rings.

她問我是否讀過“魔戒三部曲”。

帶有副詞 ever, never, still, just, already, yet 等的句子,通常需要用現在完成式過去完成式

I had never heard that before.

我從來沒有聽說過。

never 與 ever 通常出現在完成式裡。

Nicole said she had already read this novel.

妮可說,她已經讀過這本小說。

already 通常用在表示比預期發生得早的動作。

  • 她的父母說,她已經離開了。
  • Her parents said she left already.
  • Her parents said she had left already.

“said”是過去式,said之前已經完成的動作必須是過去完成式,不要用過去式取代過去完成式。already 通常用在現在完成式或過去完成式。

Grammar



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