現在完成式 (Present Perfect Tense)

現在完成式 = have
has
+ 過去分詞

現在完成式的使用時機:

過去的某個動作,到現在已經完成。

I have done my homework.

我已經把我的功課做完。

過去的某個動作,不久前才剛剛完成 (... just...)。

I have just done my homework.

我剛剛才把我的功課做完。

從過去到現在的經驗。

Have you ever eaten snake?

你吃過蛇嗎?

Cindy has always loved shopping.

辛迪一直以來就喜歡血拼。

從過去到現在累積一段時間並有可能還會繼續下去。

How long have you lived here?

你在這裡住多久了?

Since when have you been sick?

你從什麼時候開始生病了?

For hours, we have heard nothing but negative criticism. Why can't you say something more constructive?

幾個小時了,我們只聽到了消極的批評。 你為什麼不能說些更具建設性的東西?

請參考86年學科能力測驗第4題

帶有 since 或 for 表時間的介系詞,通常用現在完成時式。for 表示一段時間, since 表示從過去某一時間點到現在。

Rebecca has lived here for 10 years.

Rebecca 已經在這裡住了10年。

Rebecca has lived here since 2001.

Rebecca 自2001年以來一直住在這裡。

I have been here for two hours.

我在這裡已經兩個鐘頭。

I have been here since 10 o'clock.

從10點開始我就一直在這裡。

Mr. Yang has worked in this factory _______ 1968.

(A) since (B) in (C) before (D) for

Tina is getting married to a man she has known only _______ a month.

(A) for (B) in (C) on (D) since

帶有副詞 ever, never, still, just, already, yet 等的句子,通常需要用現在完成式或過去完成式

Have you ever failed a class?

你課業有被當掉過嗎?

ever 通常用在疑問句。

She has never been to Korea.

她從來沒去到過韓國。

never 通常用在帶有否定意思的肯定句。

Mary has just finished her homework.

瑪麗剛做了她的功課。

just 通常用在表示某個動作不久前才剛剛完成。

Don't forget to tell him to be here on time. ~
I have already told him.

不要忘了告訴他要準時到這裡來。
我已經告訴過他了。

already 通常用在表示比預期發生得早的動作。

Have you done your homework? ~
No, I haven't done it yet.

你功課做完沒?
不,我還沒有。

yet 通常用在表示比預期發生得晚的動作。

The idea of this great movie comes from a novel which has _______ been read and loved by many people.

(A) ever (B) already (C) just (D) still

"been to" 與 "gone to" 用法不同

has
have
been to

He has been to Japan.

他曾去過日本。

Have you ever been to Japan?
Yes, I went to Tokyo last month.

你去過日本嗎?
是的,我上個月去過東京。


been to 是「去過」某地,且現在已經回來了。

has
have
gone to

He has gone to Japan.

他去日本了。

Is Andy in Japan?
Yes, he's gone to Japan. He'll be back next month.

Andy 人在日本嗎?
是的,他去了日本。他將在下個月回來。
he's = he has; he'll = he will


gone to 是「去了」某地,但是還沒回來

Grammar



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