對等連接詞(Coordinating Conjunctions)

對等連接詞是用來連接句子中的片語子句。這種連接詞所連接的兩端必須是對等的;「字」和「字」、「片語」和「片語」或「子句」和「子句」。對等連接詞就只有下面這七個字:

對等連接詞範例
and but or nor for so yet

He likes tea and coffee.

他喜歡茶和咖啡。

對等連接詞"and"連接兩個字(名詞) tea 和 coffee。

Our team played hard but lost the game.

我們的團隊非常賣力,但輸掉了比賽。

對等連接詞"but"連接兩個片語 played hard 和 lost the game。

A good haircut and an easy smile will get you through just about anything in your life.

頭髮整齊和面帶笑容將會讓你克服生活上的任何困境。

對等連接詞"and"連接兩個名詞片語“A good haircut”和“an easy smile”。片語動詞 get through - "克服" 是由動詞(get)+介系詞(through)所形成。

Edward is kind and courageous.
She is a loving mother and a loyal friend.
Betty lived life fully and completely.

對等連接詞"and"連接兩個對等的形容詞(kind 仁慈的, courageous 勇敢的)、對等的名詞片語(a loving mother 一個慈愛的母親, a loyal friend 一個忠誠的朋友),和對等的副詞(fully 徹底地, completely 完全地)。

對等連接詞連接兩個獨立子句而形成合句

當兩個獨立子句被對等連接詞所連結時,前面的獨立子句後面通常跟著逗點(,),然後對等連接詞,然後另一個獨立子句。

對等連接詞使用說明
and和、而連接前後類似的語義
I took a taxi , and she walked home.
我叫了一輛計程車,而她走路回家。
but但是連接前後相反的語義
Our team played hard, but we lost the game.
我們的團隊非常賣力,但我們卻輸掉了比賽。
or二選一
We can go to a restaurant tonight, or we can just eat leftovers.
今晚我們可以去餐館,或我們可以只吃剩飯。
否則帶有警告意謂
Be here on time, or we'll leave without you.
你務必準時到來,否則我們將不等你而離去。
nor亦不配合前面否定的語義
I never saw him again, nor did I regret it.
我從來沒有再見過他,我也沒有後悔。
for因為給予理由
I couldn't stay, for the room was too noisy.
我不能留下來,因為房間太吵了。
so所以表示因果關係
It was raining, so I took my umbrella.
因為下雨,所以我帶了傘。
yet但是連接前後對比的語義
It is good, yet it could be improved.
這是很好的,但它還是可以改善。

同時使用兩個對等連接詞的句子

有時候兩個對等連接詞 and 和 but 同時使用在一個句子中。

Life is hard and mighty uncertain, but sighs of hope abound.

生活是艱難的和巨大的不確定性,但希望的氣息比比皆是。

We were in a hole, but we climbed the ladder and now we are out in the sunshine.

我們曾身陷洞穴,但我們不棄餒而往梯上爬,現在我們已經身處陽光下(比喻從困境裡走了出來)。


  • 我喜歡西洋棋,足球,和跳舞。
  • I like chess, playing football, and to go dancing.
  • I like chess, football, and dancing.

對等連接詞 and 不能拿來連接不對等的結構, chess 是名詞, playing piano 是動名詞, to go dancing 是不定詞。正確的用法是全部改為名詞 chess, football, and dancing。

  • 我們在公園吃了東西,然後我們回家。
  • We ate at the park, then we went home.
  • We ate at the park, and then we went home.

then 不是對等連接詞,不能拿來連接兩個子句。 正確的寫法是:

We ate at the park, and then we went home.
We ate at the park. Then we went home.
We ate at the park; then we went home.
After we ate at the park, we went home.


最後的例子,我們用了 after 這個字, after 是另一類的連接詞,叫作附屬連接詞。附屬連接詞連接獨立子句 we went home,和附屬子句 After we ate at the park。

  • 我從來沒有給她回電,我也沒有後悔過。
  • I never called her back, or have I regretted it.
  • I never called her back, nor have I regretted it.

對等連接詞 nor 用於前面有否定意思,如 not, never, 或 neither。

請將正確答案拖放到適當的空格內,再按Solve鈕看結果。

對等連接詞練習

  1. She said she would be late,   she arrived on time.
  2. Either you   I am to go.
  3. She remained silent,   her heart was heavy and her spirits low.
  4. It may rain today,   take your umbrella.
  5. Stand over there   you'll be able to see it better.
  6. I have neither time   money for taking a cruise.
  7. It never rains   it pours.
and but for nor or so yet

我們可以在對等連接詞之前加個逗點,隔開兩個獨立字句。如果這兩個獨立字句都很短,逗點是可以省略的。

I like pork, and she likes beef.
(= I like pork and she likes beef. )

對等連接詞 and 之前可以省略逗點。

  • Nancy 已經盡最大力了,但是標準實在是太高。
  • Nancy tried her hardest but, the bar was too high.
  • Nancy tried her hardest, but the bar was too high.

分隔兩個獨立字句,逗點應該放在對等連接詞之前。

連接詞起頭的單句

一般而言,應該盡量避免由連接詞起頭的單句;但有些特殊情形,單句是可以由連接詞起頭。

例如:

I studied for the college entrance examination. But I didn't study enough.

I studied for the college entrance examination, but I didn't study enough.


兩句文法上都沒有錯,但是第二句要比第一句來得漂亮。

下面兩句由連接詞起頭的句子,則有強調的效果。很多作家還特別鼓勵這樣使用。

Jenny thought that the big earthquake was coming. And she was right.

珍妮認為大地震即將到來。不錯,她是對的。

She had not planned to attend the wedding. Yet she did.

她本來不打算去參加婚禮。然而,她去了。

請記住,像 Because, While, Until,...等這一類的從屬連接詞就不能作為單句的起頭。

We can't go to Laura's party. Because we're going away that weekend.(錯誤的句子)

We can't go to Laura's party because we're going away that weekend. (正確的句子)

我們不能去參加羅菈的聚會,因為那個週末我們要出遠門。

除了上述七個對等連接詞用來連接兩個獨立子句外,另有一些副詞連接詞(Adverbial Conjunctions) 也具有類似的功能。

Grammar



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